Cigarette smoking is arguably the greatest threat to a healthy heart. Cigars are also linked to higher incidences of heart disease. Your primary care physician can provide suggestions about the current therapies and drugs that help you stop smoking.
Lipid levels should be measured on fasting blood samples. Based on multiple studies, the following guidelines for blood lipid levels are recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program:
The fat and fat-like substances in the blood are called lipids and include both cholesterol and triglycerides. Cholesterol is present in every cell of your body. It is used to form cell membranes and part of some hormones.
Unfortunately, certain risk factors such as family history and gender cannot be changed. However, by modifying other risk factors, the odds of having a heart attack can be substantially reduced.
Peripheral vascular services are non-invasive examinations of arteries and veins using ultrasound or Doppler. Tests include carotid duplex, venous duplex and arterial Doppler.
Permanent pacemakers are placed for bradyarrhythmias (slow heart rates). Sometimes the pacemaker completely controls the heart rhythm, at other times it only serves as a backup for slow rates.